TEN-T – The trans-European transport network (excluding liability: under the withdrawal agreement, EU legislation applies to the UK until the end of the transition) What happened after the TRANSCRIPT of the TUE was very unexpected. Given the good public opinion on the 1992 draft and the enthusiastic commitment of national governments to the EC, it would have been reasonable to consider that the ratification process should have proceeded smoothly. Nevertheless, ratification of the Maastricht Treaty took almost two years and proved to be a rather difficult process, with many obstacles (Vanhoonacker to Laursen and Vanhoonacker, 1994: 3). First, the economic crises that hit Europe between 1992 and 1993 hampered the evolution of EMU, with currencies depreciating successively, resulting in a partial fall in the exchange rate mechanism. Stagflations ensued throughout the Ec and “economic problems had a negative impact on public support for further European integration” (Vanhoonacker in Laursen and Vanhoonacker, 1994: 6). One of the main innovations brought by the TUE, with its three-pillar structure, was the creation of a political union. There have already been some agreements on social policies after the SEA, but integration has focused more on the economic aspect of European cooperation. Prior to the TEU, one of the only forms of political unity in European political cooperation, mainly related to foreign policy, was “mutual information and consultation”. The Twelve, the Member States, would agree on the adoption of a “common position” on world events (Best in Laursen and Vanhoonacker, 1994a: 19). However, it was difficult enough for them to find a common basis for reaching an agreement, particularly with the Yugoslav crisis of 1990. First, States were unable to agree on the whole situation and on the measures to be taken to avoid dismantling. Secondly, Member States have failed to agree on whether the new states should be recognised.
As a result, there were serious questions about the unity of these European countries and many people wondered whether the CFSP would actually work (Vanhoonacker to Laursen and Vanhoonacker, 1994: 7). Of course, it was finally implemented when the Maastricht Treaty was created, and it was an opportunity for the newly born EU to show that Member States can cooperate because they have common interests in the Union (Best in Laursen and Vanhoonacker, 1994a: 37). Europe (2007) “The Maastricht Treaty on the European Union” [online], Europe. Available at europa.eu/legislation_summaries/economic_and_monetary_affairs/institutional_and_economic_framework/treaties_maastricht_en.htm. Access on November 15, 2010. The eurozone crisis has undermined the belief that EU membership is good for the UK economy, regardless of its failings. In other words, Maastricht came back to haunt us. The EU also supported aloud and virtually the Paris agreement on climate change – the global plan to limit temperature rise to less than two degrees above pre-industrial levels – even when the US announced its withdrawal from the agreement. The EU remains the world leader in the fight against climate change.
The Maastricht Treaty was approved in December 1991 by the heads of government of the European Community (EC) states.