A complete contractual clause prevents pre-contract declarations, insurance, agreements, etc., from producing contractual effects, unless they are defined in the contract itself. It ensures that prior discussions, emails, draft documents, etc., are not part of the final contract and thus lead to greater security for the parties. Recent case law shows that it is important to carefully consider the effects of whole contractual clauses when they are included in trade agreements. In particular, if a party wishes to exclude liability for pre-contract insurance, the contract must expressly exclude this liability, although liability for fraudulent pre-contract insurance can never be excluded. 4. [optional] There is nothing in this clause that limits or excludes liability in the event of fraud. A full clause in the contract often contains the following: the question arises as to whether entire contractual clauses can exclude unspoken clauses. The courts held that clear and explicit wording was necessary to exclude the unspoken clauses from the contract and that their exclusion (or not) also depended on the nature of the implied clause in question. Full contractual clauses are a standard feature in boiler platform contracts. They have been the subject of numerous litigations and detailed judicial analyses. This is why a standard approach to the development of these clauses has been put in place. However, when interpreting these clauses, the courts will not analyze the clause in isolation – the usual rules of interpretation apply. As recent cases show, the guidelines in the case law will be helpful, but the courts will adopt them in the broader context of the agreement reached.
In this regard, we review recent decisions on all contractual clauses and analyze their practical effects. The Parol rule states that if the intention of the parties has been reduced to the letter, there is a general presumption that a written contract contains all the terms of the agreement between the parties. As a general rule, it is not permissible to provide oral or written extrinsic evidence, either to demonstrate what the parties intended to enter into this contract, or to contradict, amend or supplement the terms of the written agreement (including unspoken terms). The Parol rule of evidence is subject to certain exceptions, the details of which are detailed below. The whole agreement clause indicates that the agreement records all the rights and obligations of the parties in toto. If other conditions have been agreed between the parties prior to the conclusion of this contract, the parties are free to mention them in this agreement.19